Pyogenic granuloma or pyogenic fibroma is a vascular tumor that occurs on both mucosa and skin, and appears as an overgrowth of tissue due to irritation, physical trauma, or hormonal factors. It is often found to involve the gums, the skin and nasal septum, and has also been found far from the head such as in the thigh.
Signs and Symptoms:
The appearance of pyogenic granuloma is usually a color ranging from red/pink to purple, grow rapidly, and can be smooth or mushroom-shaped. Younger lesions are more likely to be red because of the high number of blood vessels. Older lesions begin to change into a pink color. Size commonly ranges from a few millimeters to centimeters, though smaller or larger lesions may occur.
Pyogenic granulomas may be seen at any age, and are more common in females than males. In pregnant women, lesions may occur in the first trimester with an increasing incidence up until the seventh month, and are often seen on the gums.
Although pyogenic granulomas are not infectious or cancer, treatment may be considered because of bleeding or ulceration. Frequently, pyogenic granulomas are treated with electrodesiccation (cauterization) and curettage (excision), though laser treatment using pulsed dye laser or CO2 laser is often effective.
Several reports have demonstrated the efficacy of topical application of the beta-adrenergic antagonist timolol in the treatment of pediatric pyogenic granuloma.
There is usually no treatment if the pyogenic granuloma occurs during pregnancy since the lesion may heal spontaneously. Recurrent bleeding in either oral or nasal lesions may necessitate excision and cauterization sooner, however. If aesthetics are a concern, then treatment may be pursued as well. Usually, only minor surgery may be needed, along with a dental cleaning for oral lesions to remove any calculus or other source of irritation. For nasal lesions, nose-picking should be discouraged.
Prognosis is usually good; however, recurrence may happen with rate up to 16%. Presence of myxoid structures in the pyogenic granuloma may be the main cause of recurrence.
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