Search

ACNE

Introduction to Acne:

Acne, also known as acne vulgaris, is a long-term skin disease that occurs when dead skin cells and oil from the skin clog hair follicles. Typical features of the condition include blackheads or whiteheads, pimples, oily skin, and possible scarring. It primarily affects skin with a relatively high number of oil glands, including the face, upper part of the chest, and back.

Pathogenesis:


Genetics is the primary cause of acne in 80% of cases. The role of diet and cigarette smoking is unclear, and neither cleanliness nor exposure to sunlight appears to play a part. In both sexes, hormones called androgens appear to be part of the underlying mechanism, by causing increased production of sebum. Another common factor is the excessive growth of the bacterium Cutibacterium acnes, which is present on the skin.

Epidemiology:


In 2015, acne affected approximately 633 million people globally, making it the eighth most common disease worldwide. Acne commonly occurs in adolescence and affects an estimated 80–90% of teenagers in the Western world. Some rural societies report lower rates of acne. Children and adults may also be affected before and after puberty. Although acne becomes less common in adulthood, it persists in nearly half of affected people into their twenties and thirties, and a smaller group continues to have difficulties in their forties.

Treatment:

Treatments for acne are available, including lifestyle changes, medications, and medical procedures. Eating fewer simple carbohydrates such as sugar may help. Treatments applied directly to the affected skin, such as azelaic acid, benzoyl peroxide, and salicylic acid, are commonly used. Antibiotics and retinoids are available in formulations that are applied to the skin and taken by mouth for the treatment of acne. However, resistance to antibiotics may develop as a result of antibiotic therapy. Several types of birth control pills help against acne in women. Medical professionals typically reserve isotretinoin pills for severe acne due to greater potential side effects. Early and aggressive treatment of acne is advocated by some in the medical community to decrease the overall long-term impact on individuals.

Prognosis:

Acne usually improves around the age of 20 but may persist into adulthood. Permanent physical scarring may occur. There is good evidence to support the idea that acne and associated scarring negatively affect a person's psychological state, worsen mood, lower self-esteem, and are associated with a higher risk of anxiety disorders, depression, and suicidal thoughts. Another psychological complication of acne vulgaris is acne excoriée, which occurs when a person persistently picks and scratches pimples, irrespective of the severity of their acne. This can lead to significant scarring, changes in the affected person's skin pigmentation, and a cyclic worsening of the affected person's anxiety about their appearance. Rare complications from acne or its treatment include the formation of pyogenic granulomas, osteoma cutis, and acne with facial edema. Early and aggressive treatment of acne is advocated by some in the medical community to reduce the chances of these poor outcomes.


Top UK Dermatologists Online Consultation
Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acne

For more information on this topic please click on the links below

Link to British Association of Dermatology from DermUK

Recent Posts

See All

ALOPECIA AREATA

Alopecia areata, also known as spot baldness, is a condition in which hair is lost from some or all areas of the body

ACTINIC KERATOSIS

Sometimes called solar keratosis or senile keratosis, is a pre-cancerous area of thick, scaly, or crusty skin.

APHTHOUS ULCERS

Aphthous stomatitis is a common condition characterized by the repeated formation of benign and non-contagious mouth ulcers.